The Sulabh Flush Compost Toilet is an eco-friendly, culturally-acceptable, affordable solution. It is easily constructed, using local materials to safely dispose of human excreta. The design is characterised by a steep-sloped pan(25 – 28 degrees) with a uniquely-designed trap and a 20 mm water seal requiring a maximum of 1.5 litres water to flush it with. It comprises of two pits which can vary in size and capacity depending on the number of household users. A pit can be used for 3 years at a time, once fully-utilised, the pipe may be diverted to the second pit. Digestion takes place in the fully-utilised pit making the contents dry, odourless and pathogen-free. The dried remains are easily extracted and can be used for a variety of agricultural purposes such as a fertilizer or soil-conditioner. The value of fertilizer produced approximately cancels out the cost of removing the contents of the pit.
Sulabh toilets are dynamic; they can be built into multiple-storey buildings and can easily attach to sewer lines.
Sulabh has successfully implemented over a million twin-pit toilets in households across India to date.
Advantages of Sulabh Toilets:
- Hygienic, practical and socio-culturally acceptable
- Easy-to-construct, economical and affordable
- Design and specifications can be tailored to suit individual budget and household needs
- Minimises insect-breeding (flies and mosquitoes)
- Adaptable to a variety of physical, geological and hydrogeological areas
- Prevents pollution of ground and surface water (precautionary measures taken when constructing)
- Odourless and health-hazard free
- Adaptable to multiple-storey buildings
- Varying digestion period options – 2 years up to 4 years per pit
- Cost-effective maintenance
- Maximum 1.5 l required to flush, versus 14 litres of water for conventional toilets
- Compact, smaller than a septic tank
- Produces rich fertilizer and soil conditioner
- Easy connection to sewers
- Option for low-volume flushing instead of pour-flushing, no manual handling
A Sulabh toilet does not pollute water when constructed in homogeneous soil.
The toilet is built at a safe distance from the water source to avoid contamination of drinking water, approximately 3 metres horizontally and 1 metre deep away. If there is a tube-well or hand pump sunk, the first joint is lower than the vertical seepage limit.
Gas is absorbed in the soil surroundings, so no ventilation pipe is required. The parameters change depending upon the coarseness of the soil and geology of the area where the toilet is being built. The shape of pits can be designed according to personal preference and the availability of space; rectangular, circular or linear.
The Sulabh toilet satisfies each condition stipulated by the World Health Organisation as per the below (Excreta Disposal for Rural Areas and Small Communities by E.G. Wagner & J.N. Lanoix, WHO, 1958, pp. 39).
- The surface soil should not be contaminated
- There should be no contamination of ground water that may enter springs or wells
- There should be no contamination of surface water
- Excreta should not be accessible to flies or animals
- There should be no handling of fresh excreta; or when this is indispensable, it should be kept to a strict minimum
- There should be freedom from odours or unsightly conditions