Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, water and hydrogen sulphide produced during the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. Methane is a valuable component of natural gas.
Previously excreta-based biogas technology was overlooked for years, as available technology required manual handling of human waste. The Sulabh design does not require human handling of excreta.
Sulabh is a pioneer in the field of biogas generation having developed a more efficient biogas plant design, which has been approved by the Indian Government and Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources.
A public toilet facility with 2000 users per day produces sufficient biogas to run a 10 KVA generator for 8 hours, equivalent to 65 units of power.
Sulabh has developed a dynamic technology to run dual-fuel generators on biogas without diesel being required. This sustainable method of biogas-based electricity generation, increases energy availability, improves sanitation and is environmentally-friendly.
200 biogas plants based on the Sulabh design have been constructed across India.
A digester (a container in which substances are treated promoting decomposition), is built underground into which excreta flows from public toilets. Biogas is produced inside the digester via anaerobic fermentation from methanogenic bacteria, a bacteria found in sewage, and is finally stored in liquid displacement chambers.
Pathogens contained in the human excreta are almost completely eliminated during this process.
– Biogas burners are odourless and smoke-free, consuming 8 – 100 cft per hour.
– A biogas lamp has a lighting equivalent of a 40 Watt electric bulb at 220 Volts, consuming only 2 – 3 cft per hour.
iii) Thermal, electrical and mechanical energy
– via a transformation process.
iv) Powering motors
– through compression
– biogas has a calorific value equivalent to 1/2 litre of diesel oil.
Biogas plant effluent can be used as a fertilizer, as bioenergy for fuel and may safely flow into rivers without causing pollution.
Recycling human excreta for biogas generation is good for the environment and promotes community health.